Orchid Digest Logo

The Orchid Digest is a
non-profit 501(c)(3) organization.

Excerpts from

VOLUME 80, NO. 3—July, August, September 2016


Brief Encounters With Cymbidium Goeringii In South Korea
Calvin Wong
7 pages, 21 photos

A variety of Cymbidium goeringii with “sunrise” variegation

A variety of Cymbidium goeringii with “sunrise” variegation
©Calvin Wong

Travelling to a foreign country? I think many of us orchid enthusiasts would maximize our travel experience and seek out opportunities to visit orchid nurseries or fl ower markets, see orchids in their native habitats (in-situ), and speak to local orchid growers for some tips and best practices. Thanks to technology, those were the exact things I did on my recent visit to South Korea...


Rhynchostele ehrenbergii & Carl August Ehrenberg
Rudolf Jenny
6 pages, 9 photos, 6 illustrations

Rhynchostele ehrenbergii
Rhynchostele ehrenbergii
©Rudolf Jenny

The first description of the species as Odontoglossum ehrenbergii was published in 1841 in “Icones Plantarum Rariorum Horti Regii Botanici Beroliniensis” (translated: “Illustrations of rare plants in the Royal Botanical Garden Berlin”). This collection of plates and descriptions was published by Johann Heinrich Friedrich Link, Johann Friedrich Klotzsch, and Christoph Friedrich Otto in 1840 and 1841. The book includes four parts with a total of 24 colour-plates. Plate 16, with Odontoglossum ehrenbergii, was published with part three in February 1841. The drawing of the flowering plant and the flower dissection which was used for the hand-coloured lithograph was made by Carl Friedrich Wilhelm Schmidt. The detailed first description originates from Klotzsch, the notes about the origin of the plant and its culture from Otto (therefore the name should be cited as Odontoglossum ehrenbergii Klotzsch). The plant was collected in 1839 by Carl August Ehrenberg in Mexico and sent alive to Europe. The plant flowered in 1841 for the first time in the collection in Berlin. Klotzsch added, to his description, some remarks about the allied species Odontoglossum apterum, rossii and cordatum. The type of Odontoglossum ehrenbergii was destroyed in 1943 in Berlin; the drawing from 1841 was later defined as neotype (iconotype). The plate shows very clearly the inflorescences emerging typically from the not yet fully developed young growths and–very, unfortunately–a callus with only one tip. Most probably the flowers Schmidt had, when he made the drawing, were aberrant in this aspect. It is known that from time-to-time flowers appear with a callus with only one tip...

Phalaenopsis pulcherrima
Zhe Zhang and Xiaoming Wang
5 pages, 14 photos
Phal. pulcherrima blooms.
Phal. pulcherrima blooms.
©Zhe Zhang

Phalaenopsis pulcherrima (Lindl.) J. J. Sm., a beautiful tropical orchid, has been widely used in orchid hybridization, especially in breeding with other Phalaenopsis species because of its erect inflorescences, floriferousness, the adaption to environment, and wonderful colors and variations. The species previously belonged to the genus Doritis which etymologically originated from the Greek ‘dorites’ meaning ‘spear’ and referring to the shape of its lip. It was previously separated from Phalaenopsis depending on classical taxonomy because of its pollinia number, lip structure, and adaptations to a terrestrial habitat. However, the genus Doritis is now placed under the genus Phalaenopsis given its molecular phylogeny...

Book Review — Darwin’s Orchids Then & Now
Carol Siegel
1 page, 1 photo

Reading Darwin’s Orchids Then & Now is like enjoying a box of See’s chocolates. A collection of 12 essays by luminaries in various fields, the book is a delicious treat no matter what chapter you choose or where you dig in. Every essay on the advances in pollination knowledge since Darwin’s day is thought-provoking and well-written and a delight to read and ponder...


Many Ways To Get Happy:
Pollination Modes Of European Epipactis Species
Jean Claessens and Jacques Kleynen
9 pages, 22 photos

E. helleborine
Fig. 01: E. helleborine
©J. Kleynen

The European members of the orchid genus Epipactis show a great variety of pollination modes, ranging from allogamy (reproducing by cross-fertilization) to autogamy (pollination of a flower by its own pollen) and a mixture of both. In this article the structure of the flower, the adaptations to the pollinators, as well as the changes in the column structure that enable self-pollination are discussed.


The species of the genus Epipactis are not among the flashiest orchids that draw the attention of enthusiasts, like the genus Ophrys or the tropical orchids. Yet they are a quite interesting group. They show remarkable adaptations to their pollinators and have also adapted their mode of pollination to environmental conditions. In this article, we will examine several species of the genus Epipactis and discuss their pollination mechanisms...


Chinese Paphiopedilum jackii and Its Hybrids
Olaf Gruss
7 pages, 26 photos, 1 illustration

Paphiopedilum jackii in situ
Paphiopedilum jackii in situ
©Zhong-Jian Liu

Paphiopedilum jackii Hua
Die Orchidee 46(3): U4; 1995

Paphiopedilum malipoense var. jackii (Hua)
Averyanov 1997 in Orchids: 153

Geographic distribution:
China in the province of Yunnan; Vietnam, in the province of Tuyen Quang near Na Hang along the rivers Gam and Nang.

Because of marked differences in the foliage, the form of the staminodium, as well as other flower parts identify Paphiopedilum jackii as a distinct species.

The first plant was found growing in humus on limestone. Detailed information on the habitat in China is not yet known. According to Averyanov, plants in Vietnam grow at higher altitudes on wooded limestone hills at 500-600 meters (1,600 – 1,900 feet) in partially shaded sites, usually facing towards the Northeast.

Flowering in the Wild:
March - April

From December to March there is hardly any precipitation, then precipitation slowly increases and from May to September moderate precipitation regularly occurs.
The temperature during the day in summer is 30°C (86°F) and at night is 15°C (59°F). The temperatures in winter are 20°C (68°F) and 10°C (50°F) at night.
There are strong air currents throughout the year and constantly high humidity due to fog and dew formation.

jackii = named in honor of Dr. Jack A. Fowlie, a well-known orchid enthusiast and the former editor of Orchid Digest, USA...


22nd World Orchid Conference
Alec Pridgeon
4 pages, 6 photos

Malacon 2000, the boardwalk overlooking the Guayas River in Guayaquil.
Malacon 2000, the boardwalk overlooking the Guayas River in Guayaquil.
©Nicolás Romero

Plans for the next world orchid Conference in Guayaquil, Ecuador, are in full swing, and the members of the Organizing Committee are excited about what we are now able to offer registrants – four days of excellent presentations, posters from students supported by scholarships, a jaw-dropping show with more than 1,000 species in flower, seasoned tours through some of the most orchid-rich habitats in the world and to the famous Galápagos Islands, and the warm hospitality of Ecuadorians anxious to show off their beautiful country...