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Excerpts from

VOLUME 83, NO. 1—January, February, March 2019


Calling all Paphiophiles
Harold Koopowitz
3 pages, 10 photos

Paphiopedilum henryanum f. album together with a coloratum forma.
©Harold Koopowitz

The Paphiopedilum Guild returns to Santa Barbara for 2019. Reserve the dates, January 19th and 20th. We have a great program of speakers. For more information visit www.orchiddigest.org. At this meeting, we will discuss possible venues for the 3rd World Slipper Conference in 2020. It has been suggested that we shift the venue to Ecuador so that we can look at phragmipediums growing in the wild. Come and share your input about where we should go for the next conference.

We were visiting Wenqing Perner at Hengduan Mountain Biotechnology in Chengdu, China in September of this year and among the exciting plants, there were some albino forms of Paphiopedilum henryanum. The albino form is unable to make red pigments, so the labellum is white, and there are no spots. Although these showed more improved flower shapes, they need to be crossed back to some of the newer colored forms to perfect their form. Also, we saw second-generation plants of Paph. henryanum var. cristae (syn. Paph. chaoi) that now have a much better shape, as well. This variety is partially albinistic and makes some red pigment, but the lip is paler and makes a few spots on the petals which are also quite pale. The spots are produced by intense red pigment overlaid on the green dorsal...


The Orchids of the Hawaiian Islands Carol Siegel
Carol Siegel
12 pages, 18 photos

Liparis hawaiensis
©Gerald D. Carra


Arundina graminifolia
©Eric Hunt

Pity poor Hawaii! Contrary to its image as the lush, orchid capital of the world, Hawaii has only three native orchids, the least of any state in the United States. Even though these three are so scrawny, unimpressive, and inaccessible that only a mother could love them, everyone associates Hawaii with orchids and more orchids. Indeed, orchids are a big part of life in Hawaii, and they permeate every corner of the islands. As Ted Green says in ORCHIDS IN HAWAII, “Even a ditch digger might be wearing a lei he got at a party the night before.” The orchid industry amounts to millions of dollars a year, and orchids are grown and sold everywhere. The moment I arrived in Hawaii, I was literally covered in orchids. My friends greeted me at the foot of the escalator at the airport with a lush purple dendrobium lei. When I got on the bus to go to the hotel, the driver placed another lei around my neck, and when I arrived at the hotel, yet another orchid lei was draped around my neck. I was literally up to my ears in orchids within an hour of arriving in Hawaii! However, all this orchid abundance is not indigenous to the islands; it was introduced by man in the last two hundred years.

Hawaii Should Be an Ideal Place for Native Orchids
Even though you don’t find much in the way of native orchids, Hawaii SHOULD be an ideal place to see them. It seems to have the perfect climate to grow orchids. The Islands sit in the northern tropics at 20 degrees latitude, and the temperature is a balmy 75–85°F (24–29°C) year-round which is orchid heaven. Reliable trade winds blow fresh, moving air against the northeast shores of all the major islands which is just what orchids love. After traveling thousands of miles across open ocean, the air is cool and moist and laden with 50–80% humidity with lots of rainfall. Hawaii averages 70 inches of rain a year, a staggering 8,000-billion gallons of water drenching the islands every year. This rainfall can vary from 20 inches (51 cm) in leeward coastal areas to more than 300 inches (762 cm) on the windward slopes of high mountains. There is excellent drainage in the volcanic rock, and lots of forest for epiphytic orchids to find a niche.

Moreover, Hawaii has lots of different microclimates; a short drive takes you through parched coastal dunes, rainforests, deserts, bog, alpine peaks, and dryland forests. Surely there is SOMEWHERE an orchid would be happy. All the islands around the Pacific Rim, like the Philippines and Indonesia, are laden with orchids, but not Hawaii. What’s the problem?...

Steveniella and Christian Von Steven
Rudolf Jenny
6 pages, 10 photos, 3 illustrations

Drawing of Steveniella satyrioides from Erich Nelson

Steveniella satyrioides in situ
©A. Groeger

The plant we know today as Steveniella satyrioides was first described and illustrated as Orchis satyrioides by Christian Steven in 1809 in “Memoires de la Société Impériale des Naturalistes de Moscou.” Although Steven’s drawing of the flower is not perfect, it is clear enough to see what he had in his hands. The sheet with the type specimen of Orchis satyrioides Steven, collected in Georgia, is today kept in the Botanical Museum of the University of Helsinki. Lieutenant C. Compere collected three different plants, one of them (no. 2) was collected by in Laspi, Crimea. Steven’s binomial is a homonym of the older Orchis satyrioides Linne and invalid. Linne had already used the binomial Orchis satyrioides by in 1763 in part six of “Amoenitates Academicae” (and not in “Plantae Rariores Africanae” of 1760 as is often cited!) for the African species today known as Disa biflora.

In 1826, in the 16th edition of “Systema Vegetabilium,” Kurt (Curt) Polycarp Joachim Sprengel (1766–1833) recombined Orchis satyrioides to Himantoglossum satyrioides, Sprengel referred explicitly to Orchis satyrioides Steven, but this binomial is a later homonym of Orchis satyrioides Linne and therefore invalid. Following the “Code of Botanical Nomenclature,” Sprengel’s transfer of Orchis satyrioides Steven to Himantoglossum satyrioides is valid but based on an invalid basionym; therefore, it will be cited as Himantoglossum satyrioides without mentioning Steven as first author. In fact, all later recombinations which are not based on Himatoglossum satyrioides Sprengel but on Orchis satyrioides Steven, are invalid because they used an invalid basionym...

Growing Vanda (Neofinetia) falcata:
An Interview with Satomi Kasahara
Phyllis Prestia
5 pages, 10 photos

Neofinetia falcata horticultural variety Taiga was the first-place winner at the Santa Barbara Fūkiran judging.
©Phyllis Prestia

Neofinetia falcata growing in situ.
©Satomi Kasahara

The Santa Barbara area is beautiful in the summer. Mild ocean breezes bathe the coast under a warm California  sun. For orchid lovers, it’s a paradise. July brings the annual open houses for two of the area orchid nurseries, Santa Barbara Orchid Estate and Cal-Orchid Inc. And for me, it brings an opportunity to attend the meeting of the Fūkiran Society of America and the annual Fūkiran judging, supported by the Japanese Fūkiran Society. For several years, the meeting and judging have been held on the property of Cal-Orchid Inc. on Saturday during the annual open house weekend. This year they were held on July 14th, and this year I entered a few of my own Vanda falcata orchids.

The American Fūkiran Society was established in 2012 as an offshoot of the Japan Fūkiran Society. According to the website (http://fukiransoa. weebly.com/), the “mission of the society is to promote the growing of Fūkiran in the United States and Canada, as well as around the world.” The currently accepted name for these orchids, according to “The World Checklist of Selected Plant Families,” is Vanda falcata. Many of those who love these orchids still call them by their synonym, Neofinetia falcata; in Japan, they are known as Fūkiran. I have an affection for these charming little orchids, and in this article, I will refer to them as Neofinetia falcata...


Is a Pot Just a Pot?
Cindy Coty
5 pages, 10 photos

Example of a 3D pot.
©Carol Beule

Anyone who delves into the world of neofinetias (now known as vandas) knows that part of their exquisite display includes a mossed root ball displayed in a special pot. The pot (known as Fuukiran [or Fuuran]) helps provide a showcase for their elegant fans of leaves and arching inflorescences. However, what about those pots?

That’s the question that Carol Beule, artist, costume designer, orchid aficionado, and American Orchid Society judge, asked after she first bloomed a Neofinetia falcata. Carol’s eye for color, composition, design, and perfection demanded that her plant would not be complete without the appropriate pot to set off its striking blooms and graceful shape. As she investigated the purchase of a pot, she found that the best was one-of-a-kind and expensive. Since she had used her creative muscles for many years and was facing retirement, she decided to see if fūkiran pot making could be part of her future...

Oeceoclades splendida, A New Species From Madagascar (Epidendroideae, Cymbidieae, Eulophiinae; Orchidaceae)
Harold Koopowitz and Phillip Cribb
5 pages, 10 photos, 1 illustration

Oeceoclades splendida. Inflorescence with a small lower branch.
©Harold Koopowitz

Many years ago, on a visit to Dogashima Orchid Sanctuary in Nishi Izu in Japan, I (HK)noticed a plant of an Oeceoclades Lindl. species with very attractive leaves. Upon further inquiry, I was told that the plant had been imported from Madagascar, but they did not know the species. I was offered a few back bulbs which I gratefully accepted and have been growing the plant ever since. Unlike most other members of the same genus, this plant produces striking flowers, and together with its distinctive marbled leaves, deserves species recognition...

Vacation Time For Orchids: A Dry Winter Rest
Compiled By Ed Lysek and Sandra Svoboda
7 pages, 18 photos

Catesetum fimbriatum ‘Golden Horizon’
©Fred Clarke

Clowesia warscewiczii ‘SVO’
©Fred Clarke

Catamodes Dragons Tail ‘Dark Tale’
©Fred Clarke

Many orchids grow in areas where the weather turns drier, cooler, and brighter during the autumn and winter months. Frequent morning fogs are common. In most cases, the early days of the dry period are characterized by condensing morning fogs which deliver small amounts of moisture to the plant, progressing to much drier days during the last four to six weeks of winter. For these orchids to bloom and grow properly, a winter rest is necessary. You can achieve this by reducing your usual watering and fertilizing frequency in autumn and winter days. Some orchids that should not have water or fertilizer, and that is what we are describing in this article.

Grouping plants together that need similar care can help you in managing this change in your fall and winter care. When withholding water, if the canes or pseudobulbs of your resting orchids begin to shrivel or wrinkle, an occasional light misting may be necessary.

As with many things with orchids, there are differing opinions amongst growers. Here is our list, based on research of the experts in the field, of those orchids that need a dry winter rest with neither water nor fertilizer that will allow you to get the best out of your orchids...

Dealing With Cites
A Response to Harold Koopowitz’s article in the Orchid Digest Vol. 82-4
Roddy Gabel
6 pages, 6 photos

In the recent Paphiopedilum Issue of the Orchid Digest (Volume 8-4, Oct., Nov., Dec. 2018), Harold Koopowitz penned an article entitled, “Slipper Orchids and CITES, A Bankrupt and Useless Policy.” In the article, Dr. Koopowitz levels strong criticisms against CITES and calls for it to be abandoned. I would like to present some information to both counter the criticisms, although some are certainly valid, and to present potential ways to effect orchid conservation—particularly slipper orchid conservation—within the structure of CITES.
What is CITES?

Many readers of Orchid Digest likely have some idea of what CITES is, but some may not, so some background may be in order. “CITES” is short for the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora, also referred to as the Washington Convention because it was drafted in Washington, DC, in 1973. (It is regrettable that the drafters of the Convention chose to include “endangered” in its title because a plain reading of the text reveals that it does not only apply to such species. With its 40+ years of history, however, the Parties are reluctant to change it.) It arose out of the nascent environmental movement in the mid-1960s to early 1970s, when many other measures were taken to address growing concerns about human impacts on the environment. This coincides with the passage of things like the Clean Air Act, the Clean Water Act, and the iconic wildlife statute, the U.S. Endangered Species Act.

In his article, Dr. Koopowitz appears to conflate CITES Appendices I, II, and III, the lists of species covered by the Convention, with the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Although there are close links between CITES and the IUCN (the International Union for Conservation of Nature), these two lists are not the same. The CITES Appendices contain species that have been or may be adversely impacted by international trade in live or dead specimens, their parts, or products, or that are so rare that any trade could endanger their existence. The IUCN Red List includes species that are categorized by conservation status, from Least Concern to Critically Endangered. Red List assessments include consideration of trade among the threats a species faces, but also include an evaluation of other factors as well (see www.redlist.org for more information)...


Book Review - Orchids of MaharashtraBotanical Survey of India
Daniel L. Geiger
1 pages, 1 photos

The book is an expanded version of Jalal’s (2018a) check-list of the orchids of Maharashtra. This Indian state is located in the central western portion of India and includes Mumbai as the best-known city. It extends from the sea-level to about 1500 m (4921 feet) over an area a bit larger than California and slightly smaller than Spain. The state also includes at lower elevations portion of the Western Ghats, a mountain range that is a UNESCO World Heritage Site and a well-known biodiversity hotspot...

Book Review - The Paphinia Book
Franco Pupulin
1 pages, 1 photos

I must confess I have a weakness for orchid monographs; I like the idea of having a book to browse, among whose pages I will eventually find the correct name for an orchid flower that I hold in my hand. I also have a fondness for the books illustrated with a profusion of color pages, because they add to the amazement and admiration for the bizarre diversity of natural beauty...